Countermeasures are intended to reduce criminal opportunity. Countermeasures or mitigation strategies are designed not primarily to lessen the impact, but to make intentional contamination less likely in the first place (Mitenius et al. 2014).
Countermeasures that address food fraud vulnerability can be grouped into four categories:
Countermeasures for food crime that interface with existing GMP measures can be categorised using the 3Ps + D approach: people, process / product, place and data. Let’s explore place-related countermeasures first.