Definition of Food Fraud

Food fraud is the intentional modification of food product for financial gain or with the intention of deceiving the consumer.

The definition adopted by the European Commission (EC) is that described by Spink & Moyer 2011 which states:

‘’ Food fraud is a collective term used to encompass the deliberate and intentional substitution, addition, tampering, or misrepresentation of food, food ingredients or food packaging: or false or misleading statements made about a product for economical gain.’’

Spink & Moyer 2011

It is similar to economically motivated adulteration (EMA). It involves the intentional substitution or addition of a substance in a product for the purpose of increasing the apparent value of the product or reducing the cost of its production.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determine economically motivated adulteration (EMA) as:

the fraudulent, intentional substitution or addition of a substance in a product for the purpose of increasing the apparent value of the product or reducing the cost of its production ( , i.e., for economic gain. )

Lutter, 2009