Examples of Food Fraud

TypeDefinitionExample
AdulterationA component of the finished product is fraudulentSudan dyes being added to chili powder
CounterfeitAll aspects of the fraudulent product and packaging are fully replicatedAlcoholic drinks that are packaged to appear and be sold as branded product such as vodka.
DiversionThe sale or distribution of legitimate products outside of intended marketsProduct is diverted to be distributed outside of the intended market for example product from countries with trade embargos.
Over-runLegitimate product is made in excess of production agreementsA customer is charged for agreed volume of product and the additional product can then be sold off for additional profit.
SimulationIllegitimate product is designed to look like but does not exactly copy the legitimate productA soft drink where the product design is to mislead the consumer into thinking it may be a similar product.
TamperingLegitimate product and packaging are used in a fraudulent wayMeat of a grade destined for pet food being sold for human consumption.
TheftLegitimate product is stolen and passed off as legitimately procuredCargo of biscuits stolen and then sold to local stores forsale to the public.

Table 1 Types of food fraud (See Spink and Moyer, 2011)

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