This element reflects that other businesses in the supply chain may either not be addressing defensive space or may undertake opaque practices or lack transparency.
The following layout simplifies how place (infrastructure, layout and logistics) play a role in preventing or reducing food fraud incidents.
Place related countermeasures are underpinned by a suitable site for production which is secure with appropriate external landscape, plant layout, equipment design and product and material flow to minimise the potential for intentional adulteration to take place.
Pop up notes for Figure 1
- Zoning protocols for high and low food fraud risk areas and employee access, as well as raw materials, finished goods and waste flow is essential.
- Entry points must be monitored and suppliers, contractors and visitors be required to register and be accompanied with internal staff when conducting their visits especially in pre-designated high risk areas. Other inputs into the manufacturing plant such as incoming raw materials, ingredients and packaging can be assessed using vendor specifications and suppliers’ ranking and performance assessment as previously described.
- Product stores within the vicinity of the site can be monitored with assistance from designated staff, security systems and CCTV. However, logistics such as transportation of incoming products and outgoing goods may be vulnerable to tampering or fraud. Diversion, replacement of goods with counterfeits, thefts, substituting with adulterated products may occur if criminals planned ahead and are aware of the transportation route and timing. If the criminals are assisted by internal people from the company or transportation agents, this will make it easier for the fraud incidents to occur.
Ongoing real-time monitoring of the transportation process via GPS traceability, data loggers, Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) and ZigBee (a short-range, low data rate wireless network) technologies will provide informative location and condition of the vehicle and inside goods.